MONAS "Indonesia National Monument"

About Monas (Monumen Nasional)

The National Monument is a memorial monument that has a height of 132 meters (433 feet) built to commemorate the resistance and also the struggle of the Indonesian people while seizing Indonesia's independence from the Dutch East Indies colonial government. Monument located in Lapangan Merdeka Square, Central Jakarta, you can visit every day starting from 8 am until 3 pm. But keep in mind, Monas will close every Monday last week of each month.n this monument you not only can see a historic monument for the Indonesian people, but also can enjoy the fountai,n the park contains animals deer, or buy souvenirs themed Monas or Jakarta City.

You can also become this National Monument to teach about the history that has been passed by the State of Indonesia, to your sons and daughters. So later, the younger generation will appreciate the services of the heroes who had been fighting for the independence of Indonesia, until we can be free like today. In addition, for those of you who love to exercise, you can also come to this National Monument to exercise in Monas Park. In the park, there is also a street that has a stone that is used for reflection. There are also futsal and basketball fields that are often used to practice or just play while visiting this monument.

Early History of Monas Development

Previously, the central government of the Republic of Indonesia was in Yogyakarta, then moved to Jakarta after the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia recognized sovereignty by the Dutch government in 1949. The construction of the National Monument was originally planned by President Soekarno, who planned to build a monument similar to the Eiffel Tower in the field right in front of the Merdeka Palace.

The construction of this monument with the aim to commemorate the struggle that has been done in the Indonesian nation to seize the independence of the state of Indonesia in 1945. In addition, for future generations will continue to be raised inspiration and also the spirit of patriotism .President Soekarno's plan then made the establishment of a national committee for the development of the National Monument. The committee was formed on 17 August 1954, and then a competition was held to design the Monas in 1955.

Since the competition began, there are about 51 works that have been entered, but only one work is perceived to meet the criteria that have been determined, namely the property of Frederich Silaban. He designed the Monas by describing the character of the Indonesian nation and also can survive for centuries. In 1960, the second contest was re-created. However, of the 136 participants who followed the competition, taka da single who meet the criteria. Until finally the chairman of the jury of the contestasked Silaban to show the design results on Soekarno. But, Soekarno disliked the design of the Silaban. Because Soekarno wanted a monument in the form of phallus and yoni. Soekarno asked Silaban to redesign the monument's design using the phallus and yoni, but because the required budget was too big while the Indonesian economic condition was not good then Soekarno finally asked another architect to continue the design.

The architect is R.M. Soedarsono.Then R.M. Soedarsono, designing the monument by entering the numbers 17, 8, and also 45, the figures symbolize Indonesia's independence day, namely August 17, 1945. And finally, the memorial monument was built on an area of 80 hectares, which is design by Friedrich Silaban and also RM Soedarsono, and began construction on August 17, 1961. Construction of the National Monument The construction of this monument is fairly short. Its construction consists of three stages. The first stage is the period 1961/1962 until 1964/1965, which was officially started by Soekarno on 17 August 1961. At that time Sukarno ceremonially stuck the first concrete pegs Monas development. The total of concrete pegs used for the foundation of this building is 284 pegs, as well as 360 pegs of earth planted to become the foundation of a national history museum.

The entire erection of the foundation was completed in March 1962. Then the museum wall at the base of the building was completed in October of the same year. Next is the construction of the obelisk which was completed in August 1963. The second phase of development took place from 1966 to 1968, but because of the September 30th Movement of 1965 as well as the coup attempt, this stage of builders had to be postponed.Then the last stage lasted from 1969 until 1976, by adding diorama at the history museum in the monument. Then the monument was officially opened and also inaugurated on July 12, 1975, by Soeharto, who was president of Indonesia at the time.

National Monument Building Structure

Based on the planned by Soekarno, the Monument is designed with the concept of Lingga and Yoni. According to him, the concept is characteristic of Indonesian culture which is also shown through the concept of building historic temples. The phallus in Monas is an obelisk symbol representing man, masculine element, active and also positive, and also symbolizes daylight. While Yoni in this monument is a plate of obelisk ground plate, which symbolizes women, elements of feminism, passive and also negative, and symbolizes the night.

Linga and Yoni is a symbol that describes fertility and harmonious unity which are both complementary from prehistoric times of Indonesia first. Monas Monument shape can also be interpreted as "alu" and "mortar", which is a rice pest that we can find in every farmhouse in Indonesia. This monument has a height of 132 meters. With the top of the monument, there is a cup on which there is a fire made of bronze with a height of 17 meters with a diameter of 6 meters and weighs 14.5 tons. This bronze fire is covered by gold that weighs 50 kilograms. The fire at the top of the monument consists of 77 parts together.

The fire at the top of the Monas became the symbol of the spirit of the Indonesian struggle to achieve independence. Initially, the fire was coated with gold weighing 35 kilograms, but during the celebration of half a century of independence of Indonesia in 1995, the layer of gold is re-coated up to reach 50-kilogram weight. The gold in the Monas fire is a donation from Teuku Markam, a businessman from Aceh who was once one of the richest men in Indonesia at the time. Monas Peak in the form of "Fire Goes Out" has a meaning of its own, meaning that the Indonesian people are always always excited that burning in the struggle and also never subsided or extinguished all the time. Then in the courtyard of the top of Monas, there is a page of 11 x 11 meters. And to reach the peak, visitors who come must use the elevator which has about 3 minutes to get to the peak which has a height of 115 meters from the ground.

From the top courtyard of this Monument, visitors can see the beauty of Jakarta, with its skyscrapers. Even if you are lucky, you can see Mount Salak located in West Java from the top page of this Monument. The top courtyard of the National Monument can accommodate about 50 visitors, and you can see the panorama of Jakarta by using binoculars.Unlike the court at the top of the Monument, in the courtyard under Monas, has a larger yard, which is 45 x 45 meters. The height from the base of the National Monument to the lower courtyard is about 17 meters. In this section, visitors can see Monas Park which becomes the city forest. Then in Taman Medan Merdeka Utama, there is a pond measuring 25 x 25 meters which made to become air conditioning and also beautify the look of the park at Monas.

Then nearby there is also a fountain pool and a statue of Prince Diponegoro who is riding a horse, which is made of bronze weighing 8 tons. The statue was made by an Italian sculptor named Prof. Coberlato, who is a donation from Console General Honors, Dr. Mario Bross in Indonesia. Also in Monas Park, there is a group of deer specially brought in from the Bogor Palace, you can invite your sons and daughters to play with these funny animals. In addition, on every corner of the page outside of Monas, there are reliefs that tell about the history of Indonesia. In the northeast corner, there is a relief that tells about the glory of the archipelago in the past, which displays the history of Singasari and also Majapahit.

Then to the southeast, southwest, and northwest, there are reliefs that chronologically tell about the Dutch colonial period, the resistance of the Indonesian people and also the heroes of Indonesia, the formation of organizations that fight for independence of Indonesia, youth oath, Japanese occupation, World War II, the proclamation of Indonesian independence , the Indonesian revolution and war of independence, and also the period of modern Indonesia's development. The reliefs are made using cement with a frame made of pipe or metal.

The Origin of Gold Who is at the Top of Monas

As mentioned earlier, the fire at the top of Monas is covered by gold which is a donation from Teuku Markam, a businessman from Aceh who was once one of the richest men in Indonesia at the time. The fire at Monas is just a small handful of Teuku Markam's help for the country's interests. The other is like the land acquisition of Senayan to be the biggest sports center in Indonesia. In the New Order era, Teuku Markam built infrastructure in Aceh and West Java.

In addition, Medan-Banda Aceh Road, Bireueun-Takengon, Meulaboh, Tapaktuan and others are the result of Teuku Markam funded by the World Bank. Then who is Teuku Markam? He is a descendant of uleebalang. Teuku Markam was born in 1925. The son of Teuku Marhaban comes from Seuneudon and Alue Capli, Panton Labu Aceh Utara. Since the age of 9 years, he has become an orphan, and then he was fostered by his brother Cut Nyak Putroe. Teuku Markam had been educated up to grade 4 Community school. Then Teuku Markam grew up and entered a compulsory military education in Koeta Radja which is now Banda Aceh, and graduated with the rank of first lieutenant. After that, he joined the TRI (Indonesian People's Army) and followed the battle at Tembung, North Sumatra together with General Bejo, Kaharuddin Nasution, Bustanil Arifin and others. In 1957, when Teuku Markam was a captain, he returned to Aceh and established PT. Karkam. However, there was a clash with Teuku Hamzah who was Commander of Kodam Iskandar Muda, consequently, Teuku Markam was arrested and only out in 1958. Out of detention, Teuku Markam to Jakarta and brought PT. Karkam and his company are trusted by the Government of Indonesia to manage the spoils of war to be a revolutionary fund.

Teuku Markam is one of the Indonesian conglomerate known closely to the Soekarno government, to make Teuku Markam once said as a shadow cabinet of Sukarno. But during the New Order, he was slandered as a PKI and then accused of being corrupt and Sukarnoisme. The allegations made him in prison in 1966. After that, in 1972 he fell ill and was treated in RSPAD for about 2 years. And he was released from prison in 1974. When out of jail in 1974, Teuku Markam established PT. Marjaya and participate in working on World Bank projects in infrastructure development in Aceh as well as West Jawa. But in 1985, Teuku Markam died in Jakarta, due to complications from various diseases National Museum of History at the National Monument In this National Monument, there is also a museum that is the National History Museum located at the bottom of the monument with a depth of 3 meters below the surface of the land. This museum space has a size of 80 x 80 meters and can accommodate visitors who come about 500 people.

In this museum, there are 48 dioramas on the four sides of the room, and 3 dioramas are in the middle of the room, so a total of 51 dioramas in the museum room. These dioramas have their own stories, ranging from pre-historic times, ancient empires such as Sriwijaya and Majapahit, and some also tell of the colonial period of Europe, the resistance of pre-independence heroes against the VOC and also the Dutch East Indies government. Until the diorama which tells about the Indonesian national movement in the early 20th century, the occupation of Japan, the war for independence, the revolution and also the New Order period of the Soeharto government.

Monas Ticket Price Jakarta

Adult

Entrance Ticket Rp 20.000

Cawan Monas Rp 7.500

Children

Entrance Ticket Rp 10.000

Cawan Monas Rp 3,500

Monas Operational Hours Jakarta

Monday to Sunday 08:00 to 15:00 pm (Morning-Afternoon)

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